2006: Law Degree from the University of Siena. Thesis title: “The ‘Perceived Enemy: The Search for a Dynamic Definition of Political Crime in the United States of America (1776-1980).”
2000: Diploma from the Scuola di Musica di Fiesole’s special three-year program for singers, sponsored by the European Community. The program included study under internationally renowned maestri such as British countertenor Michael Chance, opera singer and director Claudio Desderi, and conductor Rinaldo Alessandrini.
1987: High school diploma in accounting and computer programming from the Istituto Tecnico-Commerciale “L. Pinto,” Castellana Grotta (BA).